Negativity Bias: What It Is and How It Affects You
Have you ever gone through your day feeling good about multiple compliments or an accomplishment at work only for those feel-good emotions to be busted by a single criticism? This is an example of negativity bias at work.
So, what is negativity bias? And why does it strongly impact your emotions?
What is negativity bias?
Negativity bias refers to the tendency for humans to pay more attention or give more weight to negative experiences over positive or neutral experiences.
How it affects you
Numerous psychologists and researchers tested negativity bias. In behavioral economics, negativity bias shows itself when you choose options that might result in loss. According to an article by the Nielsen Norman Group, people avoid losses because the pain of losing is more significant than the satisfaction of an equivalent gain. For example, losing $100 is going to weigh more heavily on you than gaining $100.
In social psychology, negativity bias shows its power best during elections. A study found that voters are more likely to cast their vote for a candidate based on negative information about an opponent. Perceived negative traits overshadow a candidate's merits.
Why we have it
According to research, negativity bias starts to emerge in infancy. Infants tend to pay attention to positive facial expressions and tone of voice. However, as the infant turns one, brain studies indicate that babies begin to experience brain responses to negative stimuli. Another study found that infants as young as three-months-old show signs of negativity bias.
Psychologist Rick Hanson suggests that we have evolved to develop negativity bias due to millions of years of dealing with threats. For our ancestors, the ability to detect a threat in the surroundings (i.e., a predatory animal) guarantees survival more than finding food. However, this negative trait has been passed on to us today.
Overcoming negativity bias
Modern civilization paved the way for minimized threats, but our built-in negativity bias still affects our decision-making. While there's nothing wrong with being cautious, uncontrolled negativity bias can work against our success.
For example, experiencing a temporary setback during your amputee training sessions has the power to affect your outlook on your amputee journey. In this case, leaning too much into your negative bias will affect your progress.
The good news is that we can override it. You can do so by practicing mindfulness and being able to tell which aspects matter to you and which ones don't. Another technique is to allow yourself to bask in your successes and positive experiences by celebrating milestones.Have you noticed negativity bias at work in your life? How do you deal with it? Please share your tips with the rest of the community in the comments section below.