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New Theory Sheds Light on Phantom Limb Pain

Posted by Bryan Potok, CPO on

Phantom limb pain was first recorded some 400 years ago by French surgeon Ambroise Paré. At that time, he operated on wounded soldiers, many of whom complained of a mysterious pain in amputated limbs. Despite its long history, phantom limb pain remains poorly understood. 

New theory sheds light on phantom limb pain

Recently, the journal Frontiers in Neurology published a paper by Dr. Max Ortiz Catalan, Associate Professor at Chalmers University of Technology and head of the Biomechatronics and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory. Dr. Catalan’s new theory just might be the long-awaited breakthrough.

He called it “stochastic entanglement,” which describes how entangled neural circuitry causes phantom limb pain. 

Stochastic Entanglement 

After an amputation, the neural circuits responsible for processing sensory input and producing motor output in the missing limb loses its role. It becomes prone to entanglement with other neural networks, such as the one responsible for pain perception. 

According to Dr. Catalan, losing a limb “leaves a big chunk of ‘real estate’ in your brain” and in your nervous system. While it has lost its role, the neurons do not go silent. Instead, they might fire at random, which can result in the simultaneous firing of neurons from the sensorimotor and pain perception networks. When they fire together, pain is felt in that part of the body. 

This misfiring and subsequent entangling are explained in “Hebb’s Law” which states, “Neurons that fire together, wire together.”

“Normally, sporadic synchronized firing wouldn’t be a big deal. However, in patients with a missing limb, such an event could stand out when little else is going on at the same time. This can result in a surprising, emotionally charged experience—to feel pain in a part of the body you don’t have. Such a remarkable sensation could reinforce a neural connection, make it stick out, and help establish an undesirable link,” Dr. Catalan said.

Stochastic entanglement also explains why phantom limb pain doesn’t afflict all amputees. This is due to the phenomenon’s stochasticity or randomness, which means that simultaneous firing or linking may not occur in all patients.

Phantom Motor Execution Treatment

Dr. Catalan proceeded to examine how stochastic entanglement can explain the effectiveness of Phantom Motor Execution (PME), a treatment he developed in 2017.

When patients undergo PME, they stimulate and reactivate the dormant areas of their brain through artificial intelligence (AI). During treatment, electrodes are attached to the patient's residual limb to pick up electrical signals intended for the missing limb. These signals are translated into movements for a virtual limb in real time. The patient can see his or her image on a screen with the digitally rendered limb in place of their missing one. 

The treatment works because, according to Dr. Catalan, it uses the idle neural circuitry, which “helps weaken and disconnect the entanglement to the pain network.” Simply put, the treatment invokes an “inverse Hebb’s law”—the more those entangled neurons fire apart, the weaker their connection gets.  

PME can also be used as a preventive measure; it can keep the networks in check and avoid their entanglement in the first place. 


Stochastic entanglement uncovers what happens in the nervous system post-amputation. It also helps healthcare professionals to understand how and why PME succeeded where other treatments have failed. Clinics around the world are currently testing PME, and it has been able to reduce phantom limb pain in chronic sufferers.
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  • I lost my right arm in 1974 and have been driven mad by phantom pain ever since. It is worse with weather fronts without a doubt. My circulation is very poor and remains of my humerus is invariably freezing cold, it cannot regulate heat at all. I would be open to try anything!

    Simon Folkes on

  • I am somewhat of a new amputee of my left leg above knee.Amputated first below knee May 2018 then above knee January 2019. It was explained to me I should rub,massage,do the mirror to help with the phantom pain and also the more I use my prosthetic leg it would cut down on the pain. SMH nope. My amputations were caused from Vasculitis(also have Lupus).

    Kema on

  • I am a right leg above knee amputee, over the years the phantom pain got much better. Now it seems that I get it only when there is a big change in weather and usually two Aspirins do the job for me.

    Battista Muredda on

  • My 7 year old son had his hand amputated at the wrist in August 2019. He had terrible phantom pains until a friend (who is a massage therapist) said she could help. She recommended massaging the forearm every night and exercising the muscles by moving the hand (that is no longer there) up and down. Massage worked and he no longer has phantom pains.

    Brianne Bonacquista on

  • I am a below the knee amputee right leg I have found out that vibration helps out big time for phantom pain being on my riding mower the vibration from it I can go as much as 4 days and not have any pain at all

    Daniel Cantrell on

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